Sunday, January 03, 2010

Being Feminine: A Matter of Socialisation or Biology?

In one of my recently published interviews in Muse India, I stated that I differed from Simon de Beauvoir in her 'Other' theory where she says “one is not born but rather, becomes a woman.” I further stated that I think a woman is born as a woman.

There are inherent physical, behavioral, emotional, and psychological differences between men and women and we affirm and celebrate these differences as wonderful and complementary. These differences do not evidence the superiority of one sex over the other but rather, serve to show that each sex is complemented and made stronger by the presence of the other. As a different unit, similar to man, the female mass has their right for equity as well.

Such a statement by me surprised some of my scholar friends in that how could I state this when it is known to me that according to social anthropology, gender is more a societal than a biological phenomenon. This article aims to clarify my stand.

I started my blogging at this blog with “Bicycle and Me,” where I wrote of my experiences of childhood. As my father had an obsession for a male child, he wanted to see me as a boy and therefore, I was dressed as a boy; my hair was cut like a boy’s; and I used to play boyish games with boys instead of girlish games with girls. In my second blogging, I mentioned my Portuguese friend’s query, where he asked whether this had any impact in my sexuality in later life or not. It is clear that these cross-gender activities did not make any difference in my later life and I grew up normally as a woman.

When I studied more about gender theories, specially in Anthropology, I found that the anthropologists tried to confirm that gender is not innate but is based upon social and cultural conditions; my mind did not accept the theory so easily. Margaret Mead, in her anthropological study in 1935, concluded that the differences in temperament between men and women were not a function of their biological differences, rather, they resulted from differences in socialisation and the cultural expectations held for each sex. (See: Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies .by Margaret Mead; New York: Dell.). This is, I think, the earliest study that led to the conclusion that gender is more a social and cultural factor than a biological one. According to this study, it is the social environment of the child, such as parents and teachers, that shapes the gender identity of a child. A child learns what to wear (girls in frocks and boys in shirt-pants); how and what to play (dolls for girls and cars for boys); how to behave (passivity and dependence in girls and aggressiveness and independence in boys); and how to reciprocate (gender-wise thoughts, feelings, or behavior). And these learnings confirm an appropriate gender-wise appearance and behavior, which leads to gender identity.

The sex/gender distinction seen as a set and unchangeable dichotomy does not help social scientists. They might have feared that “the set of sex/gender distinction serve to ‘ground’ a society's system of gender differences, [but] the ground seems in some ways to be less firm than what it is supporting.” (See: the essay “Transsexualism: Reflections on the Persistence of Gender and the Mutability of Sex in Body Guards” by Judith Shapiro in the book The Cultural Politics of Gender Ambiguity (eds) J. Epstein and K. Straub, 1991). Other social anthropologists like Moira Gatens , Henrietta Moore, Pat Caplan dismiss the idea of a biological domain separated from the social. Even Pat Caplan declared that “...sexuality, like gender, is socially constructed.”

From the discussion above, one can see that gender identities are grounded in ideas about sex and cultural mechanisms create men and women. But we also have to remember that the biological sex is related to chromosomal sex, genitalia, assigned birth sex, or initial gender role which are rooted deeply in science and somehow proved rather than hypothetically assumed. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes within each cell; twenty-two of these are alike in both males and females. But when we come to the twenty-third pair, the sexes are not the same. Every woman has in her cells two of what we call the ‘X’ chromosome. But a man has just one X and another Y chromosome. These sets of chromosomes are what make males and females different.

The sex hormones--primarily estrogen and testosterone--have a significant impact on the behavior of males and females. For example, why do boys typically like to play with cars and girls like to typically play with dolls? Social anthropologists think it is the impact of socialization while Biological science thinks it is the role of these sex hormones which differentiate the choice children make gender-wise. Biology says the sex-specific differences in the brain are located both in the primitive regions, and in the neocortex--the higher brain region that contains 70 percent of the neurons in the central nervous system.

The neocortex is divided into two hemispheres joined by a 200-million fiber network called the corpus callosum. The left hemisphere controls language analysis and expression and body movements while the right hemisphere is responsible for spatial relationships, facial expressions, emotional stimuli, and vocal intonations. Females use both their right and left hemisphere to process language in certain circumstances while males just use one hemisphere. Females also reach puberty two years earlier than boys, as per biological science, and this changes the way they process social and sexual information.

There are still some characteristics and feelings that I think social anthropologists rule out for the sake of their theory. What about the voice pitch? Males have harsh voices and females have soft voices. This is a biological characteristic and it is related to gender. The crisis of infertility may create a serious trauma to a female, which a male cannot feel. This is a feeling innate with specific feminine gender and it is more a psychological and biological than a social problem. The menopausal psycho syndromes are totally biological and not categorised with this social gender theory. Social anthropologists emphasise that we are all trying to pass as a gender which is decided by cultural systems, not our biological sex. But what happens in the cases of transsexuals who do not pass it? The operation does not make their bodies fully male or fully female. The genitals will not function as genuine genitals and their chromosomes cannot be changed. Voice pitch and other physical characteristics might reveal their transsexualism.

Actually, the high level of testosterone in males drives them toward some specific masculine characteristics, while the lack of high levels of estrogen in women creates a natural, biological push in the direction of feminine characteristics. Each gender has different strengths and weaknesses; this does not mean that one sex is superior or inferior to another. Being feminine is a woman's birthright! It is always hard for me to understand why any woman would want to give up this cherished possession. I feel proud and adore my feminine dress, grooming, carriage, posture, voice, and language.

I want to use an integrated analysis of oppression which means that both men and women are subjected to oppression and stereotypes and that these oppressive experiences have a profound affect on beliefs and perceptions. I am against the patriarchy role model of society but it does not mean that I want to replace a matriarchal form of society in place of the existing patriarchal one. What I want is to develop equal mutual relationships of caring and support between all genders and I want to focus on strengthening women in areas such as assertiveness, communication, relationships, and self esteem.

Above all, I feel myself more a writer than a feminist. As a writer, I feel more sensible and sincere to my feelings and as a feminist, I am more inclined towards my femininity.I just don't understand how people can be feminists and not realise that to be feminist, you must also not be racist, ableist, homophobic, etc. If you are feeling oppressed by a masculine world, then you should not be prejudiced and bigoted towards other oppressed groups either, whether they are a result of patriarchy or not.

I hope my stand has been further clarified. If it hasn’t, I’m sure you’ll let me know!


  1. It is not an easy task to challenge established western concept. You have done it sucessfully. You have deconstructed the idea on which western feminism firmly stands. Your defence of your argument is very strong and convincing. I also had several doubts when i read simon's maxim about social construct of women, but i failed to forward by argument to such a logial coclusion as you have done. I feel, after reading your blog, that only female can express the way you have done. Man would certainly fail to give such expression of thought and idea.

  2. Dear Dr. Sarojini,
    I do completely agree with your stand that gender is a biological phenomenon. You have scientifically proved it in the essay. I do support your argument: "Each gender has different strengths and weaknesses; this does not mean that one sex is superior or inferior to another. Being feminine is a woman's birthright! . . . What I want is to develop equal mutual relationships of caring and support between all genders and I want to focus on strengthening women in areas such as assertiveness, communication, relationships, and self esteem.
    I feel proud and adore my feminine dress, grooming, carriage, posture, voice, and language. . ."
    This is the ideal stand a woman should take.
    --Prof. K V Dominic, Editor, Indian Journal of Postcolonial Literatures, Thodupuzha, Kerala

    Pradipta Kumar Pal
    Teacher in English
    Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya
    Mundali, Cuttack
    E – Mail -

  4. "i partly agree with Dr Sahoo: woman is both made and born. As nature makes a species with the basic mission and mandate to perpetuate itself, I strongly believe in the Freudian logic that sexual differences have a vital impact on the thought and behaviour of humans, as well as other animals.

    There is a design in nature's creation of the two sexes, there is a design in creating very perceptive differences in voice pitch, skin tone etc as well as many imperceptible differences too.

    These differences have to be acknowledged.

    Women are not little men. They are different from men, and very similar to men too. A woman's needs and aspirations are rooted in biology.

    If some people believe that these differences are socially conditioned, are they suggesting that one sunny afternoon 15 thousand years ago, all the men in the world had a meeting in order to decide how they would treat the womenfolk and from that day started the conditioned role play of women?

    That would be too simplistic a premise.

  5. I found your writings very thought-provoking.I don't know I should say this or not but just want to share with you that I think very seriously on the various issues pertaining to women's lives as I keenly observe and try to diagnose problems of womankind , and looking forward to write some good books but confused as I don't know how to start.It would be so nice of you mam if you will guide a little to me regarding this

  6. I support your theory. My thoughts are very radical coz from my counselling I know a lot...
    I read and enjoy the articles...

  7. I really never thought about it but now that an issue has been raised its ery apparent that a woman is born but also a woman is constructed mentally in her life time..Form is natural and the mind is to be developed the way its surrounded by thoughts and environments..But in India a woman shall be born and shall remain a woman through her life but in Europe a woman born may have a different outlook on life..Thats what I feel..Please let me be corrected if I am wrong becauase this is a difficult issue and needs to be dissected carefully by expert hands.....Krishna

  8. In my opinion a woman is born a woman.Western thoughts are based on the building up of the womanhood in a person..Physically she will be she but attitudewise she may be he..In ndia a woman is going to be woman in all ways..In Europe it may depend upon surroundings and bringing up..This difference of approach is to be scrutinised minutely...I dont know if my thoughts carry any weight.

  9. Rajendraprasad Shinde5:38 AM

    I do agree with you that woman is born as a woman and she does not become a woman as Simon de Beauvoir has stated. I am always against following western school of thought as it is because every society has its own structure and making of its own. The French Society or rather European society is necessarily a Christian society and therefore woman was always secondary there. Eve being born from Adam's rib and his plucking the apple because of his love for her and woman being the basic reason for original sin..all these things are not comparable to the fact that right from many goddesses in Indian myths upto strong women like Ahilya Holkar who had guts to punish the Brahmin who refused to teach Vedas to the Shudra or to a woman..all these women in our mind means that post British era gave lot of hyprocrisy to us and women became secondary and now they want to gain strength from the west for their liberation and believe in western theory like that of Beauvoir which supports the view that woman is made a woman. I think that woman is born as a woman and that she should not compete with man but be stronger than him in her own way..softness etc..

  10. Prof.Laxmi Shanker6:38 AM

    Dear Dr.Sahoo:
    I have read your Interview with great interest.The ideas of Simon de Beauvuvoir,Luce Irigaray and Julia Kusteva are not convincing.Post-Jung psychologists and social anthropologists have viewed
    the role of women as dependednt on social and cultural conditions,and their approach is rational.There are a scores of examples in literature to prove that gender is more a societal than a biological phenomenon:Anna Karenina,Edna Pontellier,Emma Bovary,Mall Fladers,Tess,Hester,Virmati,Ira,Gauri and many others.
    As Irving said"A woman's whole life is a history of affections"she is there to complement man in a family unit or in society.By posing themselves as gender,women have shown themselves as weaker sex,which they are not.
    I am happy that you have interpreted things rightly.
    With regards and best wishes for the new year.
    Prof.Laxmi Shanker
    Editor:Synthesis:Intnl.Jnl of English Lit.&Lang.
    Punya Bhoomi:A quarterly of Indian English Literature

  11. I completely agree with your thoughts,men and women Biological different complementary to each other,their behaviors are different,due to harmons and from the childhood we can make out the difference from their different behaviors.

  12. Sarojini, you have made it. It is a marvelously studied essay against what the fundamentalists of gender crisis present. The difference is of course social , but this social differentiation of attempting to place woman at the mercy of man is prompted by biological reasons, too. History and anthropology have been unjust to woman. Sorry for generalization; time is to blame; I am short of time.

  13. Mam, I have due regards of your ideas. Really a new and genuine view which
    you have. I am completely having such ideas regarding feminism but because I
    am not a writer I cannot explain the same in words, but now I have got your
    words to express the same.
    Yours narendra chakravarti
    Rajasthan Tech. University,Kota.

  14. I agree that people makes different between man and woman.After reading your blog i think that woman should also get a chance as man get in different circumstances of life.

  15. sarojini sahu....,
    I completely agree with your thoughts about feminism.In India people blindly follows western concepts,but you demolished western concept of Simon de beauvuoir told woman is not totally shaped by culture and society,but woman born'with certain biological differences which is not sign of their inferiority. Woman born's with certain difference has gained certain powers which is enough to rule the world.

  16. hi Dear mam , I have read your article on sense and sensualist and i am in a way i favoured both sex. In my oponion from the indain context point of view that Man endures pain as an undeserved punishment; woman accepts it as a natural heritage.
    The male and female dichotomy of polar opposites with the former oppressing the latter at all times is refuted in the Indian context because it was men who initiated social reform movements against various social evils. Patriarchy is just one of the hierarchies. Relational hierarchies between women within the same family are more adverse. Here women are pitted against one another. Not all women are powerless at all times. Caste-community identities intensify all other hierarchies.

  17. I like the way in which you have given your argument in vary convincing manner having some of the scientitific data.I agree with your views regarding male and female issue.
    I have one question in my mind that why don't we think about the almighty? Wheather it is male or female, they both are sent on the earth for some special purpose and that can be fulfilled only if we consider man as man amd woman as women.Anther thaing that mesculine and feminine quolities can be determined through social or culteral surrounding. I fill it is a question like what came first,"what came first a Hen or an Egg?" The same simple logic can be applied here also,"What came firtst HUMAN BEING or CULTURE OR SOCIETY?"
    The human being came first on the earth and then,come the culture and society. And that basic and biological differerance decided the culteral and social phenomenas. It is not so that culture shapes man or woman but they shapes the culter and society according to their needs,isan't it?
    I can not say that sociocultural atmosphere doesn't affect hauman beings, it has some of the vital effects on the minds but as far as bilogy is conern man and woman are uique in thair own way.It is not we who can decide what makes man or woman as they are. Let this qustion be on ALMIGHTY who decides it.

  18. Yes I completly agree with your thoughts about feminism.Woman borns wiyh certain physical differences.Physical and mental development of both is different.Society and culture plays little role in shaping woman as a true woman.Woman is born as a woman and not shaped.There is essential difference and variation in woman's thought from that of man.

  19. Madhusmita Mahanta11:04 PM

    While looking for some issues related to self and identity I came across your writing which opens up new directions and challenging vistas for me.
    About me, I am Mridusmita, Lecturer in English in college of Assam.
    Felt indebted for the guidance received through net.

  20. I like your way of dealing with the issue regarding male and female and also do agree with the scientific data.It is true that essancialy male and female biollogicaly different from each other.

  21. I agree that man and woman are born as such at their birth with distinct organic /physiological equipment . But the distinctly feminine behavior is a social and cultural phenomenon.

  22. Mam,
    I agree with u to some extent that men and women r biologically diffrnt.
    i want to share something with u and want to quote SWAMI VIVEKANAND,

    "There is no chance for the welfare of the world unless the condition of women is improved because it's not possible for a bird to fly on only one wing."
    I think that "Women is born mother" and that's why in childhood she wants to play with doll rather than cars and all that... so u r right that men and women are biologically different from each other.You have discussed very nicely each and all the things.

    Still there are some rural areas where women are treated like anything.You have mentioned that "i m nt against the patriachal society......" yes i m agree with u, i m also nt against with that kind of system bt it doesnt mean that we have no equal rights...there should be equality.Nature has already given the suprimacy to women in each n every spiceis,females r powerfull than males.
    yes men ang women r dffrnt biologically but society and culture also plays a vital role to mould their personalities.

  23. What you (Dr. Sarojini Sahoo) write in blog is clear-cut can be easily understood by everyone may be someone agree or not. But I don’t understand Simon de Beauvoir, what she precisely wants to say.
    I have tried to read her article at website. It appears that she means that biological difference between men and women is insignificant, but “one is not born but rather, becomes a woman.”
    You have prove your article scientifically, given prove like this
    1) The biological sex is related to chromosomal sex, genitalia, assigned birth sex,
    2) Every woman has in her cells two of what we call the ‘X’ chromosome. But a man has just one X and another Y chromosome. These sets of chromosomes are what make males and females different.
    And many more examples can be read in your article.

    I think “born as” and “make something after birth” both are important. We have no control over what nature provide men and women at time of birth; certainly we can’t change the nature decisions
    You says that you grownup as boy but “It is clear that these cross-gender activities did not make any difference in my later life and I grew up normally as a woman.”
    Yes it don’t covert you into man, but it provide you enough courage to write
    You are true that genetics play a vital role, but social and cultural conditions are equally important.
    It is widely believe that some families are found genetically superior and his families members are extra ordinary genius, but it also require some social and cultural conditions. Albert Einstein real brother was a mediocre; Mahatma Gandhi’s son was entirely different from him.
    My father used to say “Mr. Jinnah was genius man, but it is pity that his real brother was MAVALI, Mr. Jinnah never allows him to enter his house.”

    As you said “There are inherent physical, behavioral, emotional, and psychological differences between men and women and we affirm and celebrate these differences as wonderful and complementary”, absolutely I agree with you.
    But by Darwin’s theory survival to the fittest, the powerful arm men suppress the qualities of weaker arm women. In old books, it is written that women don’t have sex desire, and similarly other feeling and qualities of women, which were suppressed in past.
    Makeup, going to beauty parlor, take care of home, submissive to husband, endure bad deed of husband, is supposed to be for women. Is it the instinct of women? I don’t think so. The weaker person tries to amuse the powerful person. If women were stronger than men, the case will be definitely opposite. It can be humanized by women’s struggle or agreement so that both men and women equally enjoy life.
    But certainly men and women are bodily different, so only women can be pregnant and have to endure hardship for 9 months to become mother.
    No agreement can be made possible between wife and husband to become pregnant alternately for equality.
    People adore, worship God, simply God has almighty power. If God at some points find him helpless, who will consider him God, who will adore, or worship God?
    A genetically best plant remains ordinary unless it is properly cared.

  24. @ Kalimullah: I am delighted to read your thoughtful response to my article and am thankful to you,Sir.

  25. Thank you very much Dr.Sarojini Sahoo for comments

  26. Dear Mam I don't completely agree with your views.As you have said socialization and nuturing of two sexes has little role to play in making a man or a woman. And a woman is born a woman.True, if you are talking about physical,bodily differnces but nuturing of the same 'woman' in different cultures is different and what you term as 'feminine' totally depends on what is approved as befiting the female sex.That is more or less is decided by men.The frame is predecided for both.And any deviance from it is rediculed by the society.It is the fear of society that more or less forces both male and females to abide by the masculine and feminine roles.I strongly support Judith Butler who says that gender roles should be flexible not fixed.It would make life comfortable for both genders.Let us not have anything like feminine and masculine associated with biological sex.There should be a freedom of choosing a social role according to the demand of a situation.We cannot change nature but nuturing can be more free from predefined moulds.

  27. @ Sangeeta.
    Dear Sangeeta,
    Thanks for sharing your opinion.
    While thinking about gender identity, our anthropologists often skip the ‘feelings of a female’ , which I have named as ‘feminine’. These feelings are distinct from so called gender behavior. The feelings associated to menstruation, pregnancy, abortion, motherhood, menopause are totally feminine and their psychological effects are more than the biological ones. Let us think about the ‘teenage syndromes’ of male and female. There are some biological, psychological and behaviourial changes during this teen age. These are not all socially reconstructed. Not only Gender, but Sexuality is also the social construction of a biological drive. An individual’s sexuality is defined by whom one has sex with, in what ways, why, under what circumstances, and with what outcomes. It is more than sexual behavior; it is a multidimensional and dynamic concept. Explicit and implicit rules imposed by society, as defined by one’s gender, age, economic status, ethnicity and other factors influence an individual’s sexuality.
    It is also remarkable that Judith Butler failed with her theory when it proves that ‘transition’ does not help any ‘transsexuals’ to overcome his/her ‘gender crisis’. Please refer to my one of last articles ‘Forwarding New Hope or Running After a Mirage?’ in this blog.

  28. Dear Apa,
    I go through your article and also others''s good to have all these different views, at the same time, I would like to say that though woman is born as a woman, lots of lateral qualities in woman are instilled by the social orientations too..women mostly are responsible for such types of societal cultures where girls and boys are brought up with different ideologies, different choices and different priorities...I believe that we still have enough room to develop our new theories of feminsim, and its a need now as western feminism never has,/ or is going to justify our stands..its high time that the feminsits from east should have the courage to develop their own ideas which regulate our feministic living in east..I dont hesitate at all to say loudly that I'm a born feminist, but I dont have at all any compettion with or complaints against the other sex..we are born women and to be women, in our body, mind, internal and external self is a pride possession and life is beautiful because we are so different..and let's celebrate our born prerogatives and possessions and admit that we are born as women..loved your article and your arguments..superb as always..

  29. "I agree with you to most extent. I know you are passionate about your belief. Biologically speaking a woman is born as a girl and grows up to be a woman. I do not understand what is the significance of someone "becoming" a woman. Emotionally speaking, many would fit into this category if there is a prevalent definition. Intellectually considering, a person is born as a person and grows into a person of certain intellect and knowledge, be it woman. I apoloize if I am thinking off-topic."

  30. Hi I think you're correct about biological differences. However I just wanted to point it seems you're kind of making a few assumptions.

    As a feminist (I guess in the Western sense) many of us do acknowledge that women and men are biologically different. There are even certain aspects of Western feminism that does encourage women to embrace these feminine traits.

    It's no secret, we know men and women have different biological parts, we know that men and women have different genitalia. That's not hard to figure out.

    But I don't think you should just quickly dismiss it when people that some behavior is socialized. Again, I'm not ignoring biological differences. What I'm trying to say is everything isn't biological. Some of our behavior is socialized whether you want to believe it is or not.

    You said in your post that how can a woman want to give up her cherished femininity? I have to ask, what makes you think she's giving it up? Perhaps she doesn't identify as much with her feminine traits. There are a lot of women who are like this. And women who supposedly "give up" their femininity as you say are somehow denying their femininity, when in fact, it's probably not in them. Would say these kinds of women are somehow less of a woman?

    I don't like wearing jewelry are feminine clothing all the time. Am I giving up my femininity?

    If I misread your post in anyway please let me know. I'd be happy to hear your views.

  31. I am a male. I was brought up in a family of 4 children, two of each sex, and only 5 years age difference between all the siblings. No parental pressure was put on any of the children to be other than what they were and of course, with 1 parent of each sex as role models, all 4 children grew up to be normal healthy human beings, two men and two women. The girls, knew that they were girls and played with other girls in the neighbourhood. The boys, didn't need to be told that they were boys. They gravitated to the other boys in the neighbourhood and played with them. It was only natural to do so.
    I suppose what Simon de Beauvoir is really saying is that a girl blossoms into being a young woman, becomes a young woman. She is not born a woman. She is born a girl. A boy is not born a man. He is born a boy.
    A boy, as young as 7 or 8, may already be casting his eye about (unbeknown to his pals - or so he secretly believes) and he will have decided who is the prettiest girl in the neighbourhood. He will be casting shy glances her way. If she smiles at him, or sits next to him on the stoop, he will immediately blush. If his mother says: Oh, I saw you talking to Angela (or whatever her name happens to be) he will go as red as a beetroot. If Angela's parents suddenly move house and she disappears from his life he will be feel a small sadness. It's all already there. All is already programmed in the computer called the brain.

  32. A girl is born an infant,not a girl. If she has only male siblings, she'll think she too is one of them, and accepting her sexuality will take longer. A girl takes time to grow into a woman, blossom into one, only after she sees other women who have grown up with or around her. I have not read as much as Ms Sarojini Sahoo has, and hence am not quite qualified to answer her or take a posture wherein i can challenge her. This is just my personal view

  33. Mirevic6:35 AM

    Hello. I found this website looking for information on being feminine. I believe your theory to be correct because it was my conclusion after I started to analyze social and gender concepts during my young teenage years, although I was raised western since I live in the US. I don't want to argue anything but I want to share some concerns that many women my age (21) might have. I was raised with a machista father who always wanted me to very girly like. I have 4 sisters and a brother. Yet, I always preferred to be boy-like. I don't know why, but i just did. I like extreme sports, cars, and wearing tank tops. I like to be a little bit ruff. My western culture says it is right and ok because gender is cultural and created. But I have been struggling for the past three years to find my feminine side. I feel like I blocked it and cant find it now that I want and need it. It brings problems in the love relationships I have (I am completely clear that I like men!) I want to be feminine and lady like but it is a struggle because I am used to being this boyish way and I like it. It makes me feel free, strong and different. But I know it is not the reality of myself since in fact I have constant conflicts with myself and others for feeling imprisoned (it causes depression), being weak and uncontrolled. We who suffer from this never admit it and are called in our western society Tomboys. Some of us dress up with boy pants, do boy sports, most wear short hair and never wear make up. Is there an answer for us? Do our natural elections change from child to adults? One thing is certain, we will never like pink.

  34. Dr.Sarojini,
    I am an fine artist and really thankful to you for your excellent writing and subjects.after reading your Blog it inspires me for my art work.

    very much thanking you
    Suchismita Mohanty
    Fine artist

  35. Anonymous3:41 AM

    A video on growing up and female sexuality in India made by an Indian filmmaker
    My Own Stains by Junuka Deshpande